### Calculus Of One Real Variable – By Pheng Kim Ving Chapter 10: Techniques Of Integration – Section 10.6: Other Substitutions

10.6
Other Substitutions

 1. Completing The Square

## Example 1.1

Calculate: ### Solution ### EOS

Integrals whose integrands involve the quadratic expression ax2 + bx + c but aren't polynomials can often be handled as
follows. First, complete the square: 2. Elimination Of All Fractional Exponents

## Example 2.1

Compute: ### Solution

Let x = u6 or u = x1/6. Then dx = 6u5 du. So: EOS

If an integral contains 2 or more fractional exponents, a substitution can be used to simultaneously eliminate all of them
at once. For example, if the integrand contains x1/2 and x1/3, then let x = u6 or u = x1/6. So x1/2 = (u6)1/2 = u3, x1/3 =
(u6)1/3 = u2, and dx = 6u5 du.

In general suppose we have: and we want to eliminate all the fractional exponents. Then we have to substitute x = up, where p is a common multiple
of all the denominators n1, n2, ..., nk. Thus we choose the simplest common multiple, which is the LCM (least common
multiple). Consequently p is the LCM of all the denominators n1, n2, ..., nk. When substituting x = up don't forget to derive
that u = x1/p.

Hence the fractional exponents are eliminated and an integral in u with integer exponents is obtained. If the integrand is a
fraction where the degree of the numerator exceeds or equals that of the denominator, perform long division. Next, apply
integration formulas and/or utilize techniques presented in earlier sections.

 3. Rational Functions Of sine And/Or cosine

The integrand in this integral:   #### Example 3.1

Evaluate: ### Solution EOS

 Problems & Solutions

1. Calculate: Solution  2. Compute the definite integral: Solution  3. Evaluate: Solution  4. Find: Solution  5. Calculate: Solution 